Disorders List

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Disorders List

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Early Childhood Language Stimulation (18 – 30 months)

Focusing on building your child’s early social and language skills, emphasizing the development of play and social interactions.

Signs and Symptoms: Is your child unable to, or struggles with, any of these:

  • Look in the direction of sounds
  • Engage in pat – a – cake and peek – a – boo
  • Listen when spoken to
  • Notice toys that make sound
  • Struggle to understand words for common objects such as shoe, ball, or cookie
  • Wave in response to “bye – bye”
  • Imitate speech sounds
  • Acquire new words on a regular basis
  • Asks one or two word questions? E.g., “Where Dada?”

If your child has difficulty in one or more of these areas, they may benefit from our early childhood language stimulation program.

Language Disorders

A language disorder can affect how a child understands what is being said to them, the way they express themselves, or both.

Receptive Language Disorder

Affects a child’s ability to attend, recognize, retain, and comprehend what is being said to them.

Is your child unable to:

  • Recognize body parts and point to them when asked
  • Follow simple directions
  • Enjoy simple stories, rhymes, and songs
  • Point to pictures, when named, in books
  • Respond to yes or no questions
  • Respond to who, what, where, and why questions

Or, does your child repeat words or phrases (echolalia) back?

If your child has difficulty in one or more of these areas, they may benefit from a speech and language therapy program.

Expressive Language Disorder

Characterized by a reduced utterance length, reduced vocabulary, and reduced use of age – appropriate grammar.

Is your child unable to:

  • Imitate speech sounds
  • Have a word for almost everything (2 – 3 years)
  • Acquire new words on a regular basis
  • Use two or three – word phrases to talk about and ask for things (2 – 3 years)
  • Ask questions
  • Use sentences with four or more words (3 – 4 years)
  • Start a conversation and keep it going (3 – 4 years)

If your child has difficulty in one or more of these areas, they may benefit from a speech and language therapy program.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

A group of disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction, imagination, verbal and nonverbal communication skills. Children diagnosed on the spectrum often appear to have a limited number of interests and activities that tend to be repetitive.

A child with ASD may:

  • Not respond to their name by 12 months of age
  • Not point to an object to show interest by 14 months of age
  • Not play pretend games by 18 months of age
  • Avoid eye contact and want to be alone
  • Have delayed receptive and expressive language development
  • Repeat words and phrases over and over (echolalia)
  • Give unrelated answers to questions
  • Get upset by minor changes
  • Have obsessive interests
  • Flap their hands, rock their bodies, or spin in circles


Articulation difficulties affect the way a child produces specific sounds. It can include one sound or multiple sounds. Children with a delay in either area are typically difficult to understand. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. Children may make speech sound errors as part of normal development; however, these errors may persist past the age – expected range.

Phonological Processing Disorders

This involves patterns of sounds. For example, substituting sounds made in the front of the mouth, such as “t,” for a sound made in the back of the mouth, such as “k”. For a complete list of phonological processes, please click here.

Developmental Apraxia of Speech/Motor Speech Disorders

An apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder characterized by a difficulty in coordinating movements to produce sounds in isolation, as well as sequencing those sounds into words, phrases or sentences. [Can we turn those words into plain English?] Treatment focuses on establishing accurate motor patterns. Through repetition, the child learns to use those patterns at the word level and then move into phrases, sentences and conversational speech.

Not all children present with the same characteristics. General things to look for include:

  • Does not coo or babble as an infant
  • Limited sound repertoire
  • Inconsistent errors
  • Struggling to find the right sound or to coordinate the lips, tongue, and jaw for purposeful movement.
  • Limited growth in vocabulary
  • First words are late and maybe missing sounds
  • Difficulty imitating speech
  • Can understand language better than speak it
  • May have problems eating
  • Is hard to understand, especially for an unfamiliar listener


A speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. Children can also go through periods of normal dysfluency as they learn to speak. Physical behaviors or reactions may also be observed during the stuttering episode. Click here to learn more about stuttering and fluency.